This guide should give those interested in construction or starting out in the construction industry a basic idea of the processes involved in the creation of large buildings, for both public and private use.
Plans for the house, office block or public building should be developed, finalized and submitted for review before any actual building work takes place. You may require permits for building work, electrical work, plumbing the septic system and sewer connection. Site tests must be conducted to examine the soil, the bearing capacity of the ground and the water table. Findings from these tests may require engineering adjustments to be made in the building plans.
Preparation of the land for building involves the removal of topsoil, which is usually piled elsewhere for later use, an excavation, and the forming and pouring of the concrete footings. Footings are concrete slabs used to support the foundation walls. The foundation walls should then be erected, in the form of poured concrete in temporary wooden forms, insulated blocks, concrete blocks or preserved wood. There is a great deal of heavy lifting involved at this stage, and it’s essential that the right tools and machinery is used to prevent injuries. Equipment to assist with manual lifting can be purchased from industry standard retailers including Handling Equipment online.
When on site, health and safety should take priority, even if it means that construction takes a little longer. The foundation of the building should be damp-proofed and insulated, and weeping tiles installed to drain ground moisture away from the structure.
Exterior walls, interior partitions and the roof are next to be assembled. A framing skeleton with exterior sheeting must be erected to protect the structure from the elements. Progress is usually swift at this stage, and frames should be built on the floor and lifted into place, one wall at a time. Windows and doors are then installed and the basement floor is finished. Electrical and plumbing elements should then be laid for inspection, and heating and cooling vents put into place.
Interior and Exterior Work
When the exterior walls and roof are insulated, another inspection will take place to ensure that the work has been done correctly. Interior work involves the painting of walls and ceilings, the laying of flooring and the installation of kitchen and bathroom cabinets. Plumbing and electrical fixtures should now be added and the interior doors hung. At this stage, the site manager or the client who has requested the construction work will be able to critique the progress made and suggest relevant improvements.